HIV IN A REGION OF NIGERIA
J.K. Okafor, V.I. Okam, 5th year students
Scientific advisor – assist. A.I. Piddubna
Sumy State University, infectious diseases and epidemiology department
HIV - infection is one of the greatest medical and social problems all over the world, of which Nigeria is not exempted. It poses treats to the people living in this geographic location.
The purpose of this work was to learn the dissemination of HIV-infection among the various contingents of Nigerian Population. The research tasks were to analyze epidemiological features of HIV-infection in Nigeria, to explore sexual structure of persons with antibodies to HIV 1/2.
Results. There are three main HIV transmission routes in Nigeria: heterosexual sex, blood transfusions, mother-to-child transmission.
Heterosexual sex: approximately 80-95 % of HIV infections in Nigeria are a result of heterosexual sex. Factors contributing to this include a lack of information about sexual health and HIV, low levels of condom use, and high levels of sexually transmitted diseases. Women are particularly affected by HIV; in 2009 women accounted for 56 % of all adults aged 15 and above living with the virus.
Blood transfusions: HIV transmission through unsafe blood accounts for the second largest source of HIV infection in Nigeria. Not all Nigerian hospitals have the technology to effectively screen blood and therefore there is a risk of using contaminated blood. The Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health have responded by backing legislation that requires hospitals to only use blood from the National Blood Transfusion Service, which has far more advanced blood-screening technology.
Mother-to-child transmission: each year around 57,000 babies are born with HIV. It is estimated that 360,000 children are living with HIV in Nigeria, most of whom became infected from their mothers. This has increased from 220,000 in 2007.
Conclusions. The number of HIV-infected persons in a region of Nigeria was increased with every year. Multiple sexual contacts determines the disposition of epidemic in the country, approximately 80-95 % of HIV infections in Nigeria are a result of heterosexual sex. Women are the high risk group to HIV transmission.